INDIAN RESIDENTIAL, DAY,
AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS

Trigger warning: readers may be triggered by the recount of Indian Residential Schools. To access a 24-hour National Crisis Line, call: 1-866-925-4419. Community Assistance Program (CAP) can be accessed for citizens of the Anishinabek Nation: 1-800-663-1142.

This page contains a variety of resources for all ages and learning levels. It is important for all occupants of this land, especially non-Indigenous counterparts, to commit to learning about the true history and legacies of the Indian Residential School system.

An important act of Truth and Reconciliation is investing in Indigenous-owned business or enterprise. There are many stores and businesses across Anishinabek Nation territory to consider when purchasing resources and learning material.

Check out our Education Resources to see the many resources that can be ordered right through the Anishinabek Nation!

 

 

Books For Younger Readers

Ages 4–8

Aglukark, Susan, with illustration by Amanda Sandland and Danny Christopher. Una Huna? What is This? Toronto, ON: InhabitMedia, 2018.

Bowden, Mike, with illustrations by Kelsey Jules. Bear and Coyote. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2020.

Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shin-chi’s Canoe. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of Anansi, 2008.

Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shi-shi-etko. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of Anansi, 2005.

Flett, Julie. Birdsong. Vancouver, BC: Greystone Kids, 2019.

Goodtrack, Kim Soo and Lethbridge, Stan. Lowanpi Mato’s Tipi. Nanaimo,

BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2020.

Joe, Rita, with illustrations by Pauline Young. I Lost My Talk. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing, 2019.

Kusugak, Michael Arvaarluk. Arctic Stories. Illustrated by Vladyana Langer Krykorka. Toronto, ON: Annick Press Ltd., 1998.

Landry, Barbara, with illustrations by Martha Kyak. ᓇᑦᑎᖅ Nattiq And the Land of Statues: A Story from the Arctic. Toronto, ON: Grounwood Books, 2020.

Meyer, Christopher and Solomon, Chad. Adventures of Rabbit and Bear Paws vol1: The Sugar Bush. Peterborough, ON: Little Spirit Bear Productions, 2007.

Munsch, Robert, with illustrations by Jay Odjick. Bear for Breakfast. Toronto, ON: North Winds Press, 2020.

Van Camp, Richard, with illustrations by George Littlechild. What’s the Most Beautiful Thing You Know About Horses? San Francisco, CA: Children’s Book Press, 2013.

Sammurtok, Nadia, with illustrations by Lenny Lischenko. In My Anaana’s Amautik. Toronto, ON: Inhabit Media, 2020.

Syliboy, Alan. The Thundermaker. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing, 2015.

Thomas, Rebecca, with illustrations by Pauline Young. I’m Finding My Talk. Halifax, NS: Nimbus Publishing, 2019.

Vermette, Katherena, with illustrations by Flett, Julie. The Girl and the Wolf. Pentincton, BC: Theytus Books, 2019.

Ages 9–12

Armstrong, Kerry, and Mack, Terri. I Am Like a TREE: BARK and KNOTS – A Story About Courage and Struggles. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2020.

Bouchard, David, with illustrations by Roy Henry Vickers. The Elders are Watching. Vancouver, BC: Raincoast Books, 2003.

Elofson, Robert, and Peelen, Lori. I Am the Elwha (HC). Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2020.

Hutchinson, Michael. The Case of the Missing Auntie. Toronto, ON: Second Story Press, 2020.

Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. A Stranger at Home. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2011.

Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. Fatty Legs. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2010.

Loyie, Larry, illustrations by Constance Brissenden. As Long As The Rivers Flow. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books, 2002.

Mills, Allison. The Ghost Collector. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2019.

Olsen, Sylvia, Rita Morris, and Ann Sam. No Time to Say Goodbye: Children’s Stories of Kuper Island Residential School.Winlow, BC: Sono Nis Press, 2001.

Robertson, Robbie, with illustrations by David Shannon. Hiawatha and the Peacemaker. New York, NY: Abrams Books, 2015.

Sterling, Shirley. My Name is Seepeetza. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre

Yellowhorn, Eldon, and Lowinger, Kathy. What the Eagle Sees: Indigenous Stories of Rebellion and Renewal. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2019.

Ages 12–14 (Grade 7-9)

Bell, Aaron. Jak’s Story. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2010.

Boivin, Lisa. I Will See you Again. Winnipeg, MA: HighWater Press, 2020.

Brooks, Martha. Bone Dance. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 1998.

Hill, Gord. 500 Years of Resistance Comic Book. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2010.

Jacobson, Diane. My Life with the Salmon. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2010.

Johnston, Aviaq. Those Who Dwell Below. Toronto, ON: Inhabit Media, 2019.

Jones, Adam Garnet. Fire Song. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2018.

Little Badger, Darcie. Elatsoe. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2020.

Loyie, Larry, with illustrations by Constance Brissenden. Goodbye Buffalo Bay. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2009.

Medicine Crow, Joe. Counting Coup: Becoming a Crow Chief on the Reservation and Beyond. Nanaimo, BC: Strong NationsPublishing Inc., 2006

Robertson, David Alexander. Ghosts. Winnipeg, MA: HighWater Press, 2019.

Spillett, Tasha, with illustration by Natasha Donovan. Surviving the City. Winnipeg, MA:
HighWater Press, 2019.

Vermette, Katherena, with illustrations by Scott B. Henderson. A Girl Called Echo, Vol 1: Pemmican Wars. Nanaimo, BC: Strong Nations Publishing Inc., 2018

Recommended Reading for Adults

History

Adams, Howard. Prisons of Grass. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishers, Revised Edition, 1989.

Barman, Jean and Jan Hare. Good Intentions Gone Awry: Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission on the Northwest Coast.Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.

Berger, Thomas. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: the Report of the Mckenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977.

Cariboo Tribal Council. Impact of the Residential School. Williams Lake, BC, 1991.

Chartrand, Larry N., Tricia E. Logan, and Judy D. Daniels. Métis History and Experience and Residential Schools inCanada/Histoire et expériences des Métis et les pensionnats au Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.

Deiter, Constance. From Our Mothers’ Arms: The Intergenerational Impact of Residential Schools in Saskatchewan. Toronto, ON: United Church Publishing House, 1999.

Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples From Earliest Times. Toronto, ON: McClellandand Stewart, 1992.

Grant, Agnes. No End of Grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1996.

Huel, Raymond J.A. Proclaiming the Gospel to the Indians and Métis. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 1996.

Jaine, Linda. Residential Schools: The Stolen Years. Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan, University Extension Press, 1993.

King, David. A Brief Report of the Federal Government of Canada’s Residential School System for Inuit/Bref compte-rendu du Régime du pensionnats pour les Inuit du gouvernement fédéral du Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.

Lascelles, Thomas A. Roman Catholic Indian Residential Schools in British Columbia. Order of OMI in BC, 1990.

Métis Nation of Alberta. Métis Memories of Residential Schools: A Testament to the Strength of the Métis. Edmonton, AB: Métis Nation of Alberta, 2004.

Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1996.

Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council. Indian Residential Schools: The Nuu-chah- nulth Experience. Port Alberni, BC: Nuu-chahnulth Tribal Council, 1996.

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 1, Chapter10: “Residential Schools”. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996.

Titley, E. Brian. A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada. Vancouver, BC:University of British Columbia Press, 1986.

Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties: Women In Fur-Trade Society, 1670– 1870. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Younging, Gregory, Jonathan Dewar, and Mike DeGagné, eds. Response, Responsibility, and Renewal: Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Journey/Réponse, responsabilité et renouveau. Cheminement du Canada vers la vérité et la réconciliation. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2009.

Memoirs

Ahenakew, Edward. Voices of the Plains Cree. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1973.

Apakark Thrasher, Anthony. Skid Row Eskimo. Toronto, ON: Griffin House, 1976.

Blondine-Perrin, Alice. My Heart Shook Like a Drum. Nepean, ON: Borealis Press, 2009.

Brass, Eleanor. I Walk in Two Worlds. Calgary, AB: Glenbow Museum, 1987.

Campbell, Maria. Halfbreed. Halifax, NS: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 1973.

Dandurand, Joseph A. Looking into the Eyes of My Forgotten Dreams. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 1998.

Ennamorato, Judith. Sing the Brave Song. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1999.

Fontaine, Theodore. Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools: A Memoir. Victoria, BC: Heritage House, 2010.

French, Alice. My Name is Masak. Winnipeg, MB: Peguis, 1976.

Goodwill, Jean and Norma Sluman, eds. John Tootoosis. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1990.

Residential Schools (General Reading)

Bays, Eric. Indian Residential Schools: Another Picture. Ottawa, ON: Baico Pub, 2009.

Benjamin, Chris. Indian School Road: Legacies of the Shubenacadie Residential School. 2014.

Boyden, Joseph. Wenjack. Penguin Random House Canada, 2016

Callaghan, Jodie. The Train. Illustrations by Georgia Lesley. Second Story Press, 2020

Canadien, Albert. From Lishamie. 2010

Churchill, Ward. Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Indian Residential Schools. ‎ City Lights Publishers, 2004

Crate, Joan. Black Apple: A Novel. Simon & Schuster Canada, 2017

More General Reading resources to follow.

Legacy and Reconciliation

Assembly of First Nations. Breaking the Silence: An Interpretive Study of Residential School Impact and Healing, as Illustratedby the Stories of First Nation Individuals. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations, 1994.

Battiste, Marie and Jean Barman, eds. First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1995.

Burnaby, Barbara. Languages and Their Role in Educating Native Children. Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Press, 1980.

Castellano, Marlene Brant, Linda Archibald, and Mike DeGagné, eds. From Truth to Reconciliation: Transforming the Legacyof residential schools/De la vérité à la réconciliation. Transformer l’héritage des pensionnats. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2008.

Chrisjohn, Roland, Andrea Bear Nicholas, Karen Stote, James Craven (Omahkohkiaayo i’poyi), Tanya Wasacase, Pierre Loiselle,and Andrea O. Smith. An Historic Non-Apology, Completely and Utterly Not Acceptedhttp://www.marxmail.org/ApologyNotAccepted.htm

Chrisjohn, Roland and Sherri Young. The Circle Game: Shadows and Substance in the Indian Residential SchoolExperience. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1997.

Crey, Ernie and Suzanne Fournier. Stolen From Our Embrace: Abduction of First Nation Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 1997.

Regan, Paulette. Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.

Schissel, Bernard and Terry Wotherspoon. The Legacy of School for Aboriginal People: Education, Oppression, andEmancipation. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Wadden, Marie. Where the Pavement Ends: Canada’s Aboriginal Recovery Movement and the Urgent Need for Reconciliation.Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 2008.

Fiction

Alexie, Robert Arthur. Porcupines and China Dolls. Don Mills, ON: Stoddart, 2009.

Akiwenzie-Damm, Kateri and Josie Douglas, eds. Skins: Contemporary Indigenous Writing. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press and Alice Springs: Jukurrpa Books, 2000.

Armstong, Jeannette. Slash, Revised. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2007.

Blue Cloud, Peter. Weaver Spider’s Web. In All My Relations: An Anthology of Contemporary Canadian Native Fiction, ed. Thomas King. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1990.

Boyden, Joseph. Born With a Tooth. Toronto, ON: Cormorant Books, 2009.

Gedalof, Robin, ed. Paper Stays Put: A Collection of Inuit Writing. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig Publishers, 1980.

Ipellie, Alootook. Arctic Dreams and Nightmares. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1993.

Maracle, Lee. Ravensong: A Novel. Vancouver, BC: Press Gang Publishers, 1993.

Moses, Daniel David and Terry Goldie, eds. An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Mosionier, Beatrice Culleton. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1999.

International Experiences

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875–1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.

Bartels, Dennis A. and Alice L. Bartels. When the North Was Red: Aboriginal Education in Soviet Siberia. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1995.

Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families 1900– 1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

Ellis, Clyde. To Change Them Forever: Indian Education at the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1893–1920. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1996.

Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called it Prairie Light: The Story of the Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln, NE: University ofNebraska Press, 1995.

Other Media and Resources

Plays

Highway, Tomson. Dry Lips Oughta Move To Kapuskasing. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1989.

Kiss of the Fur Queen. Toronto, ON: Doubleday, 1998.

The Rez Sisters. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1988.

Lakevold, Dale and Darrell Racine. Misty Lake: A Play. Winnipeg, MB: Loon Books, 2006.

Loring, Kevin. Where the Blood Mixes: A Play. Vancouver, BC: Talon Books, 2009.

Loyie, Larry and Vera Manuel. Two Plays About Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Living Traditions, 1998.

Moses, Daniel David. Brebeuf’s Ghost. Toronto, ON: Exile Editions, 2000.

Simon, Lorne Joseph. Stones and Switches. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.

Taylor, Drew Hayden. Toronto at Dreamer’s Rock. Education is Our Right:

Two One-Act Plays. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishers, 1990.

Poetry

Armstrong, Jeannette and Lally Grauer, eds. Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2001.

Dumont, Marilyn. A Really Good Brown Girl. London, ON : Brick Books, 1996.

Dumont, Marilyn. That Tongued Belonging. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 2007.

Johnson, Emily Pauline. Flint and Feather. 1912. Reprint, Toronto, ON: Guardian Printing for Chiefswood National Historic Site, 1997.

Joe, Rita. Poems of Rita Joe. Halifax, NS: Abanaki Press, 1978.

Songs of Eskasoni. Charlottetown, PE: Ragweed Press, 1988.

Redbird, Duke. Loveshine and Red Wine. Elliot Lake, ON: Woodland Studios Publishing, 1981.

Ruffo, Armand Garnet. Opening in the Sky. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.